Document Type : Brief Report


Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Although health anxiety is a rare type of anxiety in adolescents and children, it has a negative impact on their mental health. Health anxiety refers to worries and fears about one’s health and physical sensations. The current study aimed to examine the correlation of early maladaptive schemas with automatic negative thoughts and health anxiety in school students.This correlational research was conducted in 2022 in Tabriz, Iran. The participants were 200 students recruited through convenience sampling method. To collect data, we used the Health Anxiety Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Young Schema Questionnaire- Short. The early maladaptive schema’s factors were significantly correlated with health anxiety and automatic negative thoughts (P=0.001). Early maladaptive schemas are pervasive dysfunctional themes or patterns that negatively impress people’s thoughts and lead to misinterpretations about internal and external events.


1. Wright KD, Lebell MA, Carleton RN. Intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, health anxiety, and anxiety disorder symptoms in youth. J Anxiety Disord. 2016;41:35-42. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.04.011. PubMed PMID: 27302203. ## 2. Tyrer P. Recent advances in the understanding and treatment of health anxiety. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018;20(7):49. doi:10.1007/s11920-018-0912-0. PubMed PMID: 29931576. ## 3. Salkovskis PM, Warwick HMC. Meaning, misinterpretations, and medicine: A cognitive-behavioral approach to understanding health anxiety and hypochondriasis. In Starcevic V, Lipsitt DR, editors. Hypochondriasis: Modern perspectives on an ancient malady. Oxford University Press; 2001. p. 202–222. ## 4. Pirbaglou M, Cribbie R, Irvine J, Radhu N, Vora K, Ritvo P. Perfectionism, anxiety, and depressive distress: Evidence for the mediating role of negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity. J Am Coll Health. 2013;61(8):477-83. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2013.833932. PubMed PMID: 24152025. ## 5. Bishop A, Younan R, Low J, Pilkington PD. Early maladaptive schemas and depression in adulthood: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2022;29(1):111-130. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2630. PubMed PMID: 34131990. ## 6. Tariq A, Quayle E, Lawrie SM, Reid C, Chan SWY. Relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Anxiety in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2021;295:1462-1473. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.031. PubMed PMID: 34563389. ## 7. Shorey RC, Elmquist J, Anderson S, Stuart GL. Early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment. Pers Individ Dif. 2015;83:6-12. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.040. PubMed PMID: 25897180. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4400827. ## 8. Calvete E, Orue I, Hankin BL. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: The mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts. J Anxiety Disord. 2013;27(3):278-88. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.02.011. PubMed PMID: 23602941. ## 9. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS, Ullman JB. Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Pearson; 2007. ## 10. Salkovskis PM, Rimes KA, Warwick HM, Clark D. The Health Anxiety Inventory: development and validation of scales for the measurement of health anxiety and hypochondriasis. Psychol Med. 2002;32(5):843-53. doi: 10.1017/s0033291702005822. PubMed PMID: 12171378. ## 11. Hollon SD, Kendall PC. Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an automatic thoughts questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1980;4:383-395. doi: 10.1007/BF01178214. ## 12. Young JE, Brown G. Young schema questionnaire-short form; Version 3; 2005. doi: 10.1037/t67023-000. ## 13. Tutal N, Yalcin I. The Role of Schemas in the Relationships between Family Function and Well-Being. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2021;93:115-134. doi: 10.14689/ejer.2021.9. ## 14. Zohdi Y, Mohammadkhani P, Karimpour-Vazifehkhorani A. The role of Anhedonia and low arousal in substance use disorder among adolescents with conduct disorder symptoms. PCP. 2022;10(2):111-120. doi: 10.32598/jpcp.10.2.815.1. ## 15. Karimpour Vazifehkhorani A, Attaran A, Karimi Saraskandrud A, Faghih H, Yeganeh N. Effectiveness of Cue-Exposure Therapy on Alcohol Craving in Virtual Environment: Based on habit loop. Addict Health. 2022;14(2):78-86. doi: 10.22122/AHJ.2022.196454.1288. ## 16. Tahmasebi S, Karimpour Vazifehkhorani A. Comparing the Effects of Motivational Manipulation and Neurofeedback Methods on Reward Sensitivity, Delay Discounting, and Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. IJPCP. 2022;27(4):458-473. doi: 10.32598/ijpcp.27.4.3572.1. ##