Document Type : Research Article (s)
1 Department of Community Medicine, Murshidabad Medical College, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Paediatrics, R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Tamralipto Government Medical College and Hospital, Tamluk, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India
Background: The prevalence of adolescent hypertension is on the rise due to multiplicity of certain risk factors, like obesity, unhealthy dietary behaviour, physical inactivity, tobacco use, alcohol addiction, and academic stress. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension among adolescent school children and identify the factors influencing it.
Methods: The present observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two higher secondary schools in a block of Murshidabad district, West Bengal, from February to April 2021. The subjects included 15 to 19-year-old school students. Multistage random sampling method was used for selecting a sample size of 183 adolescent school children. Data were obtained by interviewing the study participants, measurement of blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression were used for bivariate and Multivariable data analysis, respectively, with P<0.05 as the level of significance.
Results: The mean of Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure were 115.02+10.853 and 71.52+8.484 mm of Hg, respectively. The overall prevalence of elevated blood pressure and adolescent hypertension was 21.3% (95% CI 15.4-27.2). The prevalence was significantly higher among those with paternal education of above middle school (AOR=1.803, P=0.011), high socioeconomic status (AOR=3.16, P=0.02), and high Body Mass Index for their age (AOR=11.474, P<0.0001). Smart phone use (P=0.03) and family history of hypertension (P=0.029) were also found to significantly influence elevated blood pressure among the subjects in bivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Measurement of blood pressure, as a part of school health programme, should be given priority with emphasis on physical activity at school, health promotion to avoid unhealthy diet, and restricted smart phone use.