Document Type : Research Article (s)


1 Department of Educational, School and Counseling Psychology, College of Education, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA

2 Research, Measurement, and Evaluation, Department of Educational and Psychological Studies, School of Education and Human Development, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA


Background: Teachers are under enormous stress and attrition rates of this group are among the highest in the the United States The present study aimed to investigate whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) can be used as an intervention to provide teachers the tools needed to decrease stress and feel more satisfied and effective in their roles as teachers.
Methods: The present study evaluated an MBSR intervention with teachers through a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The teachers assigned to the treatment group received an 8-week mindfulness-based course. The data were collected in the 2019-2020 academic year. Seven teachers of nine- and 10-year-olds (n=124 students) across three schools were randomly categorized as either the MBSR or control group. Teacher scales of mindfulness, mental health, perceived stress, and studentteacher relationships as well as student scales of mindfulness and student-teacher relationships were completed.
Results: Intervention teachers reported an increased use of mindfulness techniques and reduced stress (24.33±4.04 at pretest vs. 13.67±3.06 at posttest, P=0.001) and anxiety (99.00±13.08 at pretest vs. 59.33±12.34 at posttest, P=0.001). No treatment-related effects were found on student-teacher relationships (89.62±16.90 for the control vs. 78.23±15.04 for the intervention, P=0.49) or student report of mindfulness practice (59.00±7.16 for the control vs. 56.00±7.81 for the intervention, P=0.82).
Conclusion: The results herein confirmed the usefulness of implementing MBSR intervention for teacher well-being, but did not provide evidence that an increase in teacher mindfulness will improve student-teacher relationships.


1. Kabat-Zinn J. Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition): Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantom Books; 2013. ## 2. Lazarus, RS & Folkman, S. Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1984. ## 3. Ingersoll R, Merrill L, May H. What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition?. Research Report (#RR-82). Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania; 2014. ## 4. Baer RA. Mindfulness training as clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice. 2003;10(2):125-43. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg015. ## 5. Carmody J, Baer RA. How long does a mindfulness-based stress reduction program need to be? A review of class contact hours and effect sizes for psychological distress. J Clin Psychol. 2009;65(6):627-38. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20555. PubMed PMID: 19309694. ## 6. Chiesa A, Serretti A. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(5):593-600. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0495. PubMed PMID: 19432513. ## 7. de Vibe M, Bjørndal A, Tipton E, Hammerstrøm K, Kowalski K. Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for improving health, quality of life and social functioning in adults. Systematic Reviews. 2012;8(1):1-127. doi: 10.4073/csr.2012.3. ## 8. Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2004;57(1):35-43. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7. PubMed PMID: 15256293. ## 9. Virgili M. Mindfulness-based interventions reduce psychological distress in working adults: A meta-analysis of intervention studies. Mindfulness. 2013;6(2):326-37. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0264-0. ## 10. Emerson L, Leyland A, Hudson H, Rowse G, Hanley P, Hugh-Jones S. Teaching mindfulness to teachers: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Mindfulness. 2017;8(5):1136-1149. doi: 10.1007/s12671-017-0691-4. PubMed PMID: 28989547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5605579. ## 11. Meiklejohn J, Phillips C, Freedman ML, Griffin ML, Biegel G, Roach A et al. Integrating mindfulness training into k-12 education: Fostering the resilience of teachers and students. Mindfulness. 2012;3(4):291–307. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0094-5. ## 12. Kallaparin K, Siew K, Kirubakaran R, Hancock, K. Review: Effectiveness of mindfulness in improving mental health symptoms of children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2015;20(4):182-194. doi: 10.1111/camh.12113. PubMed PMID: 32680348. ## 13. Klingbeil DA, Fisher AJ, Renshaw TL, Bloomfield BS, Polakoff B, Willenbrink JB, et al. Effects of mindfulness-based interventions on disruptive behavior: A meta-analysis of single-case research. Psychology in the Schools. 2017;54(1):70-87. doi: 10.1002/pits.21982. ## 14. Klingbeil DA, Renshaw TL, Willenbrink JB, Copek RA, Chan KT, Haddock A, et al. Mindfulness-based interventions with youth: A comprehensive meta-analysis of group design studies. J Sch Psychol. 2017;63:77-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2017.03.006. PubMed PMID: 28633940. ## 15. Maynard BR, Solis MR, Miller VL, Brendel KE. Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary school students. Systematic Reviews. 2017;13(1):1-144. doi: 10.4073/csr2017.5. ## 16. Zenner C, Herrnleben-Kurz S, Walach H. Mindfulness-based interventions in schools: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Front Psychol. 2014;5:603. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00603. PubMed PMID: 25071620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4075476. ## 17. Zoogman S, Goldberg SB, Hoyt WT, Miller L. Mindfulness interventions in youth: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness. 2015;6(2):290-302. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0260-4. ## 18. Singh NN, Lancioni GE, Winton ASW, Karazsia BT. Mindfulness training for teachers changes the behavior of their preschool students. Research in Human Development. 2013;10(3):211-33. doi: 10.1080/15427609.2013.818484. ## 19. Jennings PA, Greenberg M. The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to child and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research. 2009;79(1):491-525. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325693. ## 20. McIntyre TM, McIntyre SE, Bar CD, Woodward PS, Francis DJ, Durand AC, et al. Longitudinal study of the feasibility of using ecological momentary assessment to study teacher stress: Objective and self-reported measures. J Occup Health Psychol. 2015;21(4):403-414. doi: 10.1037/a0039966. PubMed PMID: 26652265. ## 21. Frank J, Jennings PA, Greenberg MT. Validation of the Mindfulness in Teaching Scale. Mindfulness. 2016;7(1). doi: 10.1007/s1267-015-0461-0. ## 22. Kendall PC, Finch Jr AJ, Auerbach SM, Hooke JF, Mikulka PJ. The State–Trait Anxiety Inventory: A systematic evaluation. J Consult Psychol. 1976;44(3):406-12. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.44.3.406. PubMed PMID: 932270. ## 23. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory–II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1996. ## 24. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983;24(4):385–96. PubMed PMID: 6668417. ## 25. Hewitt PL, Flett GL, Mosher SW. The Perceived Stress Scale: Factor structure and relation to depression symptoms in a psychiatric sample. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 1992;14(3):247-57. ## 26. Pianta RC. Student-Teacher Relationships Scale. Professional Manual, Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 2001. ## 27. Whitaker RC, Dearth-Wesley T, Gooze RA. Workplace stress and the quality of teacher–children relationships in Head Start. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2015;30:57-69. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.08.008. ## 28. Greco LA, Baer RA, Smith GT. Assessing mindfulness in children and adolescents: Development and validation of the child and adolescent mindfulness measure (CAMM). Psychol Assess. 2011;23(3):606-14. doi: 10.1037/a0022819. PubMed PMID: 21480722. ## 29. Koomen HMY, Jellesma FC. Can closeness, conflict and dependency be used to characterize students’ perceptions of the affective relationship with their teachers? Testing a new measure in middle childhood. Br J Educ Psychol. 2015;85(4):479-97. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12094. PubMed PMID: 26407806. ## 30. Yoon JS. Teacher characteristics as predictors of student-teacher relationships: Stress, negative affect, and self-efficacy. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal. 2002;30(5):485-93. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2002.30.5.485. ## 31. Klingbeil DA, Renshaw TL Mindfulness-based interventions for teachers: A meta-analysis of the emerging evidence base. Sch Psychol Q. 2018;33(4):501-511. doi: 10.1037/spq0000291. PubMed PMID: 30507235. ##