Document Type : Research Article (s)


Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran


Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral disorder with considerable personal and social consequences, including significant emotional distress among elementary school students and their caregivers. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) and mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) on the behavioral problems of students with ADHD in Ahvaz, Iran in 2020.
Methods: This pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study included two experimental groups and a control group. The statistical population comprised all children aged 6-12 years visiting psychology and psychiatry clinics in Ahvaz, Iran who were diagnosed with ADHD by specialists. A sample of 45 children was conveniently selected and randomly allocated to two experimental groups and a control one. The first experimental group underwent twelve sessions (60-minutes sessions per week) of PCIT. Moreover, the MBT was performed on the second experimental group for twelve 60-minute sessions, and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instrument included The Child Symptom Inventory (CSI-4). Analysis of covariance in SPSS version 24 was used to analyze the data.
Results: The PCIT and MBT significantly mitigated the behavioral problems of the students with ADHD, including ADHD signs and symptoms, opposition and defiance, social anxiety, and separation anxiety (p <0.001). The PCIT was significantly superior to the MBT in the mitigation of ADHD signs and symptoms (p <0.001).
Conclusion: As the findings supported the effectiveness of PCIT and MBT on the behavioral problems of students with ADHD, workshops should be held on the treatment of behavioral problems in these students.


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