Document Type : Research Article (s)

Authors

1 Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: It is a widely acknowledged fact that the future lies in the hands of the next generation whose success is mainly dependent on education. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the structural model of students’ motivation based on the teacher-student relationship, school attachment, and metacognitive awareness by academic optimism. The method of correlation was structural equation modeling.
Methods: The structural equation modeling correlation was the method used in this research. The statistical population of this study consisted of 500 students selected from all male and female high schools in 22 districts of Tehran in the academic year 2017-2018. The Harter Academic Motivation Questionnaire (MIT), Teacher-Student Relationship, Attachment to the Motown School, Mokhtari and Richard Metacognitive Awareness, Academic Optimism were responded. For data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation with SPSS software version 20 and path analysis with Amos software. The level of significance was P>0.01.
Results: The results showed that the relationship between teacher-student with academic motivation by mediator role of academic optimism was significant (total effect=0.633, P=0.002), (direct effect=0.286, P=0.002), and (indirect effect=0.377, P=0.002). Furthermore, Attachment to school had a positive association with academic motivation. Finally, the relationship between metacognitive awareness with academic motivation by mediator role of academic optimism was significant (Total effect=0.351, p <0.001).
Conclusion: Given the findings of the present study on the importance of the mentioned variables in students’ academic motivation, it is suggested that school principals provide positive, active, and vibrant school environment by developing optimistic beliefs in students. Provide students with academic motivation.

Keywords

1. Blašková M, Majchrzak-Lepczyk J, Hriníková D, Blaško R. Sustainable Academic Motivation. Sustainability. 2019;11(21):5934. doi:10.3390/su11215934. ## 2. Nabizadeh S, Hajian S, Sheikhan Z, Rafiei F. Prediction of academic achievement based on learning strategies and outcome expectations among medical students. BMC medical education. 2019;19(1):99.doi: 10.1186/s12909-019-1527-9. ## 3. Steinmayr R, Weidinger AF, Schwinger M, Spinath B. The Importance of Students’ Motivation for Their Academic Achievement–Replicating and Extending Previous Findings. Frontiers in psychology. 2019;10. ## 4. Steinmayr R, Weidinger AF, Wigfield A. Does students’ grit predict their school achievement above and beyond their personality, motivation, and engagement? Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2018; 53:106-22.doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.02.004. ## 5. Lotz C, Schneider R, Sparfeldt JR. Differential relevance of intelligence and motivation for grades and competence tests in mathematics. Learning and Individual Differences. 2018; 65:30-40.doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2018.03.005. ## 6. Heffner AL, Antaramian SP. The role of life satisfaction in predicting student engagement and achievement. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2016;17(4):1681-701.doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9665-1. ## 7. Vettori G, Vezzani C, Bigozzi L, Pinto G. The mediating role of conceptions of learning in the relationship between metacognitive skills/strategies and academic outcomes among middle-school students. Frontiers in psychology. 2018; 9:1985. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01985. PubMed PMID: 30405480; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC6206844. ## 8. Michaelides MP, Brown GT, Eklöf H, Papanastasiou EC. The Relationship of Motivation with Achievement in Mathematics. InMotivational Profiles in TIMSS Mathematics 2019; 9-23. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-26183-2_2. ## 9. Cook DA, Artino Jr AR. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories. Med Educ. 2016;50(10):997-1014. doi: 10.1111/medu.13074. PubMed PMID: 27628718; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5113774. ## 10. Amiri Gharghani A, Amiri Gharghani M, Hayat A A. Correlation of Motivational Beliefs and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies with Academic Achievement of Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Strides Dev Med Educ. Online ahead of Print; 15(1): e81169. doi: 10.5812/sdme.81169. ## 11. Dogan U. Student engagement, academic self-efficacy, and academic motivation as predictors of academic performance. The Anthropologist. 2015;20(3):553-61.doi:10.1080/09720073.2015.11891759. ## 12. Darling-Hammond L, Flook L, Cook-Harvey C, Barron B, Osher D. Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development. Applied Developmental Science. 2020;24(2):97-140. doi:10.1080/10888691.2018.1537791. ## 13. Korthagen FA, Attema-Noordewier S, Zwart RC. Teacher–student contact: Exploring a basic but complicated concept. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2014; 40:22-32. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2014.01.006. ## 14. Blewett K. The Role of Feedback in Teacher/Student Relationships (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati), 2018. ## 15. Boda PA, Brown B. Priming urban learners’ attitudes toward the relevancy of science: A mixed‐methods study testing the importance of context. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 2020;57(4):567-96. doi: 10.1002/tea.21604. ## 16. Camerino O, Valero-Valenzuela A, Prat Q, Manzano Sánchez D, Castañer M. Optimizing education: a mixed methods approach oriented to Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR). Frontiers in Psychology. 2019;10:1439.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01439. ## 17. Cadima J, Doumen S, Verschueren K, Buyse E. Child engagement in the transition to school: Contributions of self-regulation, teacher–child relationships and classroom climate. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2015 Jul 1; 32:1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.01.008. ## 18. McNally S, Slutsky R. Teacher–child relationships make all the difference: constructing quality interactions in early childhood settings. Early Child Development and Care. 2018;188(5):508-23. doi:10.1080/03004430.2017.1417854. ## 19. Wachs S, Görzig A, Wright MF, Schubarth W, Bilz L. Associations among adolescents’ relationships with parents, peers, and teachers, self-efficacy, and willingness to intervene in bullying: a social cognitive approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(2):420. ## 20. Mulyadi S, Rahardjo W, Basuki AH. The role of parent-child relationship, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy to academic stress. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2016; 217:603-8. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.063. ## 21. Isik U, Tahir OE, Meeter M, Heymans MW, Jansma EP, Croiset G, Kusurkar RA. Factors influencing academic motivation of ethnic minority students: A review. Sage Open. 2018;8(2):2158244018785412. doi: 10.1177/2158244018785412. ## 22. de Castro RM, Pereira DI. Education and Attachment: Guidelines to Prevent School Failure. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2019;3(1):10. doi:10.3390/mti3010010. ## 23. Longobardi C, Prino LE, Marengo D, Settanni M. Student-teacher relationships as a protective factor for school adjustment during the transition from middle to high school. Front Psychol. 2016; 7:1988. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01988. PubMed PMID: 28066305; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5179523. ## 24. Roorda DL, Jak S, Zee M, Oort FJ, Koomen HM. Affective teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic update and test of the mediating role of engagement. School Psychology Review. 2017;46(3):239-61. doi: 10.17105/SPR-2017-0035.V46-3. ## 25. Allen K, Kern ML, Vella-Brodrick D, Hattie J, Waters L. What schools need to know about fostering school belonging: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review.2016;30:1–34. doi:10.1007/s10648-016-9389-8. ## 26. SoaresII TM, da Silva FernandesII N, NóbregaII MC, NicolellaIII AC. Factors associated with dropout rates in public secondary education in Minas Geraisl. Education and Research. 2015;41(3):758.doi: 10.1590/S1517-9702201507138589. ## 27. Korpershoek H, Canrinus ET, Fokkens-Bruinsma M, de Boer H. The relationships between school belonging and students’ motivational, social-emotional, behavioural, and academic outcomes in secondary education: a meta-analytic review. Research Papers in Education. 2019;26:1-40. doi:10.1080/02671522.2019.1615116. ## 28. Farnam A, Anjomshoaa H. The Relationship between Metacognition Skills with Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement among High School Students in Kerman, Iran. Int J Pediatr. 2020; 8(1): 10759-10766. D. doi:10.22038/ijp.2020.45608.3731. ## 29. Saeedzadeh M, Raeisoon MR, Mohammadi Y. The relationship between cognitive and metacognitive strategies and academic achievement of students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Future of Medical Education Journal. 2018;8(1):27-30. ## 30. Sepahvandi MA, Sabzian S, Geravand Y, BAYRANVAND S, Pirjavid F. Effectiveness of cognitive techniques on academic motivation and academic performance of female high school students in Isfahan. New Educational Approaches. 2016;11(1): 63-80. doi: 10.22108/nea.2016.21058. ## 31. Saks K, Leijen Ä. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies as predictors of language learning outcomes. Psihologija. 2018;51(4):489-505.doi: 10.2298/PSI180121025S. ## 32. Sedhu DS, Ali SM, Harun H. The use of metacognitive strategies by ESL tertiary learners in learning IELTS listening course. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies. 2017;6(1):11-24. doi:10.18488/journal.23.2017.61.11.24. ## 33. Van den Berg G, Coetzee LR. Academic self-concept and motivation as predictors of academic achievement. Int Educ Sci. 2017;6(3):469-78. doi: 10.1080/09751122.2014.11890158. ## 34. Seligman ME. P, & Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology: An introduction: Reply. American Psychologist. 2001; 56(1): 89–90. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.1.89. ## 35. Nasab SH, Asgari A, Ayati M. The relation between academic optimism and motivation of academic advancement with respect of mediating role of academic efficacy of the second grade students. International J. Soc. Sci. & Education. 2015;5(4):2223-4934. ## 36. Tschannen‐Moran M, Bankole RA, Mitchell RM, Moore DM. Student academic optimism: A confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Educational Administration. 2013;51(2):150-170.doi: 10.1108/09578231311304689. ## 37. Mitchell RM, Tarter CJ. A path analysis of the effects of principal professional orientation towards leadership, professional teacher behavior, and school academic optimism on school reading achievement. Societies. 2016;6(1):5.doi: 10.3390/soc6010005. ## 38. Mitchell R, Tarter J. Effects of Principal Professional Orientation Towards Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and School Academic Optimism on School Reading Achievement. How school leaders contribute to student success. Societies. 2017 (pp. 263-277). Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-50980-8_12. ## 39. Safari M, Soleimani N. The Relationship between Teachers’ Academic Optimism Culture and Student Achievement in Junior High Schools in Tehran. Journal of Education Experiences. 2019;1(2):43-58. ## 40. del Mar Ferradas M, Freire C, Núñez JC, Pineiro I, Rosário P. Motivational profiles in university students. Its relationship with self-handicapping and defensive pessimism strategies. Learning and Individual Differences. 2017; 1( 56):128-35. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.018. ## 41. María-del-Mar F, Freire C, Rodríguez-Martínez S, Piñeiro-Aguín I. Profiles of self-handicapping and self-esteem, and its relationship with achievement goals. Anales De Psicología. 2018;34(3):545.doi: 10.6018/analesps.34.3.319781. ## 42. Harter S. A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental psychology. 1981;17(3):300.doi:10.1037/0012-1649.17.3.300. ## 43. Samawi Sa, Najjarpourian S. The Causal Relationship between Internal Motivation, Academic Engagement and Academic Self-Regulation with Academic Performance mediated by Self-Directed Learning in High School Students in Bandar Abbas. Quarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning. 2019; 7 (12): 47-68.doi: 10.22084/j.psychogy.2018.15114.1682. ## 44. Murray C, Zvoch K. The inventory of teacher-student relationships: Factor structure, reliability, and validity among African American youth in low-income urban schools. The Journal of early adolescence. 2011;31(4):493-525.doi:10.1177/0272431610366250. ## 45. Fischer C, Fishman B, Dede C, Eisenkraft A, Frumin K, Foster B, Lawrenz F, Levy AJ, McCoy A. Investigating relationships between school context, teacher professional development, teaching practices, and student achievement in response to a nationwide science reform. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2018 ; 1(72):107-21.doi:10.1016/j.tate.2018.02.011. ## 46. Mokhtari K, Reichard CA. Assessing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of educational psychology. 2002;94(2):249. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.2.249. ## 47. Hemati F, Jadidi H, Yarahmadi Y, Akbari M. Formation of an Educational Passion Model Based on Learning Strategies and Meta-Cognitive Awareness by Interacting Motivational Beliefs. Educational Development of Judishapur. 2019; 10:125-140. doi: 10.22118/edc.2019.92726. ## 48. Mehriyan E, jenaabadi H, pourghaz A. The relationship between meaning of education with perceived stress Academic Optimism. Journal of Educational Psychology Studies. 2019; 16(33): 137-156. doi: 10.22111/jeps.2019.4438. ## 49. Emadi, M., & Maryam Ganji Khankahdani, M. (2016). Investigating the Relationship between Academic Motivation and Optimism in Secondary School Students of Chahar-Isfahan Secondary School, First International Conference on Psychology and Social Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Top Services. available from: https://www.civilica.com /Paper-PSSCONF01-PSSCONF01_017.html. ## 50. Tas Y, Cakir B. An investigation of science active learning strategy uses in relation to motivational beliefs. Mevlana International Journal of Education. 2014;4(1):55-66. doi: 10.13054/mije.13.55.4.1. ## 51. Gargari B, Gholaami S. Academic Optimism, Occupational Goal Orientation, and Job Satisfaction among Teachers. Quarterly Journal of Education. 2015;31(2):71-90. ## 52. Cheraghikhah Z, Arabzadeh M, Kadivar P. The Role of Academic Optimism, Academic Emotions and School Well-Being in Mathematical Performance of Students. Positive Psychology. 2015;1(3): 11-20. ##