Document Type : Research Article (s)


1 Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, IR Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz Branch, Bandargaz, IR Iran

3 Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Mental Health Research Center, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran


Background: Most people experience anxiety in attempting to reach their goals in life and confronting the existential challenges.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare the achievement of goals, perfectionism and anxiety among high school students.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 200 female and male students selected from six high schools using cluster random sampling method. Achievement goal scale for public texture, Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale and DASS scale were used to collect data, analyzed by multivariate variance analysis (MANOVA), and multiple regression.
Results: The results showed that in the proficiency-oriented achievement goal subscales and function-oriented achievement goal subscales girls had higher scores than boys, indicated by (P < 0.021) and (P < 007), respectively. In parental expectations subscale of perfectionism girls had higher scores than male students (P < 0.013). But there were no significant differences between male and female students in the scores of the subscales of concern over mistakes, personal standards, parental criticism, parent’s expectations and organization. In the stress subscale, girls (34.39) obtained higher scores (P < 0.004) than boys (30.16). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the subscales of anxiety and depression, between the two genders. The students' anxiety can be predicted using two subscales of function-oriented achievement goal (P < 0.002) and work avoidance oriented achievement goal (P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Considering the prediction of students' anxiety by achievement goal sub-scales, similar research findings can be used to design training programs in order to prevent anxiety and negative perfectionism in students.